Looking at Hyperthermia
Heat stroke (or hyperthermia) is one of the more serious ailments in summer heat and weather. A form of hyperthermia (a raised body temperature that affects both the neurological and the physical), it will make the person dehydrated and disoriented. Unless treated quickly, heat stroke can have very serious consequences.
Heat stroke typically affects the elderly, children, sports players, and those who make a living working outdoors (carpenters or builders, etc.) with a higher percentage than others.
In addition, those who exert themselves in the heat of the season without proper hydration and care can quickly find themselves in the middle of heat stroke.
Heat Stroke and its Causes
Unfortunately, heat exhaustion often leads to heat stroke, which is quite deadly. People suffering from heat stroke should receive medical care as soon as possible, or death will be imminent.
Heat stroke often called sunstroke, occurs primarily because the person can no longer sweat because they are dehydrated. As a result, their body temperature will rise dramatically because the body cannot cool itself.
The symptoms of heat stroke are similar to heat exhaustion, except the heat stroke victim will run at a high temperature. The person may also become disoriented and combative. In addition, because blood pressure drops due to dehydration, the person may experience faintness or dizziness.
Heat stroke victims need to be cooled, bringing their temperatures down like heat exhaustion. Cold compresses to the head, neck, and groin area will help. A cool bath, not cold, will also be effective but make certain someone is there to watch that the person does not faint and drown.
Liquids are critical, but at this point, salt intake will also be required. A sports drink or something similar should also be given. The best case scenario, however, is to get the person in the shade, apply cold compresses and get immediate medical help.
Heat Stroke Symptoms
Most people who get to the heat stroke stage will start to exhibit symptoms of heat exhaustion before heat stroke.
Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion
Fatigue and cramping are usually the first signs of overheating. Ignoring the signs can lead to symptoms of heat exhaustion:
- Skin that’s red and very hot to the touch
- Excessive sweating
- Lightheaded feeling, dizziness, feeling faint
- Nausea and vomiting
- Pounding in the head or headache
Symptoms of Heat Stroke
Heat conditions commonly occur outdoors from overexertion in hot weather, but poor housing conditions also contribute to heat-related deaths. Symptoms of heat stroke:
- Skin that’s very hot to the touch and may be dry. Color is usually pale.
- Disorientation or confusion
- Rapid pulse
- Difficulty breathing
Heat stroke can result in death. However, it’s important to know that hyperthermia does not have to go through “stages” before it becomes serious. A person can become dangerously overheated in minutes and with little to no warning, especially with a medical condition.
Also at high risk for heat-related ailments are the elderly, infants, and children. Victims may display the symptoms of heat stroke without complaining first of lesser symptoms associated with heat cramps and heat exhaustion.
Heat Stroke Treatment
The most immediate thing for those with heat stroke is to call for help, ensure the person is out of direct sunlight, and start to cool the person with water and fanning.
Check the temperature of those in suspected heat stroke so that EMS services will know the temperature and how much it was dropped before they arrived on the scene. Cooling the person is the best before the EMS services arrive on the scene.
What to Do for Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke Victims
The skin helps to regulate body temperature. When heat builds up in the body, sweat glands produce sweat which evaporates and cools the skin. When the body overheats, blood vessels expand, bringing more blood to the skin’s surface, where heat is lost.
However, the situation becomes dangerous and life-threatening when the body cannot cool down due to extreme heat and humidity.
If you or someone else is experiencing symptoms of heat exhaustion:
- Get to a shaded or air-conditioned area.
- Cool the body with water and ice as rapidly as possible.
- Monitor skin color, skin temperature, and the victim’s condition.
If someone shows symptoms of heat stroke:
- Get the victim to a cool or shaded area.
- Call emergency services immediately.
- Cool the victim’s body with water and ice. The Web site, MedicineNet.com, posts information in the article, “Heat Stroke: How Do You Treat a Heat Stroke Victim” and states, “Get the victim to a shady area, remove clothing, apply cool or tepid water to the skin (for example, you may spray the victim with cool water from a garden hose), fan the victim to promote sweating and evaporation, and place ice packs under armpits and groins.”
- Monitor temperature (or feel skin temperature), skin color, and the victim’s condition until emergency medical help arrives.
The NOAH (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Web site features the article, “Heat Wave – a Major Summer Killer,” and reports the following statistics: “Heat is the number one weather-related killer.
On average, more than 1,500 people in the U.S. die each year from excessive heat. This is greater than the 30-year mean annual number of deaths due to tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, and lightning combined.”
Heat Stroke Prevention
While it’s true that older people may be more predisposed to these conditions, they can happen to anybody and do so at a much higher frequency than people realize.
Both conditions can be avoided if one makes sensible decisions about activities during especially hot weather. For example, besides keeping hydrated by drinking water every fifteen minutes or so, don’t consume lots of alcohol or eat heavy, hot meals. This kind of food raises one’s body temperature normally anyway.
Exercise only in the early, cooler morning hours or in an air-conditioned room. Avoid being in the sun as much as possible. If it’s necessary to be outdoors, wear a hat for shade, dress in loose clothing, and avoid sunburn. Know the symptoms of heat exhaustion to treat it properly and stop it from advancing to heat stroke.
A few simple things can be done to prevent heat stroke and exhaustion.
- Stay hydrated. Keeping hydrated with water is one of the most important preventative measures in the heat of sun and humidity of weather. So drink plenty of water, even if you’re not thirsty. Avoid caffeine or alcohol that can lead to more dehydration.
- Wear a hat and lose clothing. This will keep the body aerated and the sun off the body directly. Direct sun will dry out and remove fluids quickly. Box up your dark-colored tight-fitting clothes and save them for fall and winter. In the summer months, only wear loose-fitting, light-colored clothing, in addition to a hat and sunglasses.
- Watch sweat. If there is a tremendous amount of sweating, replenish the fluids with water and electrolyte replenishers like some sports drinks. If there was sweat, but it has stopped, yet the person is red and still very warm, heat stroke could be setting in.
- Consume more salt – If you know you’ll spend more time in the sun, consume slightly more salt than normally with your meals.
- Avoid the hottest hours – Stay indoors during the hottest hours of the day, choosing early mornings and evenings for outdoor activities. Stay in a cool place and if your home isn’t air-conditioned, spend time where it’s cool such as a mall, library, or relative’s home. Don’t walk or run outdoors in extreme heat. Instead, exercise in a cool gym or walk in a mall.
- Check weather reports – Each day, know what’s predicted for the weather, avoiding the outdoors on days slated for hot temperatures.
- Limit time in a sauna or hot tub – Don’t spend more than 15 minutes in a sauna or hot tub during hot summer days.
- Children should not be left in vehicles in the summertime, even when parked in the shade. This is because the sun moves, and a vehicle in the shade when the driver walks away may be in direct sunshine a short time later.
- The elderly and the young should not be left unattended in unventilated homes without air conditioning.
- Athletic activities and other strenuous exertion should not be undertaken in the heat of the day; fluid replacement must be a primary concern when such activity is necessary. In situations where individuals sweat profusely or in very hot, dry conditions, electrolyte replacement should also be provided.
- A rounded teaspoon of table salt in five gallons of water, light punch, or Kool-Aid provides an adequate hydrating solution.
- Thirst is a poor indicator of hydration status during exertion; therefore, fluids (and electrolytes, if indicated) must be drunk periodically regardless of thirst. However, overhydration must be avoided; although plain water provides adequate hydration for most situations, ingesting too much water can dilute plasma electrolytes.
- Cool water is absorbed more readily than warm water.
- Specialized hydrating solutions are rarely required, but flavored drinks may enhance the consumption of fluids. High-glucose solutions should not be used for hydration.
- Appropriate clothing should be worn: protection from the sun is important, but clothing must allow adequate airflow and evaporation.
- Acclimatization over two weeks provides physiologic benefit for exertion in hot environments: Progressing from 15-20 minutes of exertion in a hot environment to 90 minutes of activity is recommended. Such preparation increases the amount of sweat (i.e., cooling) for a given level of exertion while decreasing the concentration of electrolytes in a given volume of sweat.
- Individuals who regularly exert in hot environments should weigh after work or exercise. People losing 2 to 3% of body weight should drink enough fluid to regain their starting weight before their next exposure. Anyone losing 4% or more of body weight should avoid heat exposure for at least one day until rehydration has occurred.
Where is it Safe to Go When the Weather is Hot?
Most people head indoors when the weather gets too hot; however, some residents may not have the luxury of air conditioning in the home.
Anyone can experience heat stroke symptoms when the body becomes overheated and cannot sufficiently cool through normal perspiration. So, where does one go to stay cool when the temperature gets too hot?
- Public library
- Community Center
- Water park
- Movie theater
- Lake or shaded beach (Avoid sunburn)
- Indoor flea market
Heat exhaustion and heat stroke are dangerous hyperthermia conditions that require immediate attention. Symptoms of heat exhaustion can usually be managed with swift treatment to cool down the body, but heat stroke is a medical emergency.
Keeping cool, hydrated, and out of direct sun or heat is the easiest way to avoid heat exhaustion and heat stroke.
Some people do not have the benefit of air conditioning in the home and must travel to a public building or mall to take refuge from extreme heat. Learn to recognize heat stress before it escalates to a crisis. Knowing what to do in a heat stroke emergency may save a life.